Rosemary


Article Outline
  1. 1. Composition
  2. 2. Healing Properties
    1. 2.1. Antimicrobial
      1. 2.1.1. Antibiolm activity
    2. 2.2. Antiepileptic
    3. 2.3. Antimutagenic
    4. 2.4. Anticancer
      1. 2.4.1. Pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative
    5. 2.5. Antioxidant
    6. 2.6. Antiparkinson’s
    7. 2.7. Antidepressant
    8. 2.8. Anxiolytic
    9. 2.9. Carminative
    10. 2.10. Circulatory Stimulant
    11. 2.11. Healthy Digestion
    12. 2.12. Nervine
    13. 2.13. Brain Health
      1. 2.13.1. Mental Stimulation
      2. 2.13.2. Memory enhancer**
      3. 2.13.3. Neuroprotective
    14. 2.14. Metabolism
    15. 2.15. Skin Health
  3. 3. Disease / Symptom Treatment
    1. 3.1. Cancer
      1. 3.1.1. Prostate Cancer
    2. 3.2. Diabetes
    3. 3.3. Colds/Flu
    4. 3.4. Fungal Infections

Rosemary is a woody, perennial herb with fragrant, evergreen, needle-like leaves and white, pink, purple, or blue flowers, native to the Mediterranean region. The plant can live as long as 30 years.

Scientific Name: Salvia rosmarinus. Until 2017, it was known by the scientific name Rosmarinus officinalis.

Composition

Rosemary contains a number of phytochemicals, including rosmarinic acid, camphor, caffeic acid, ursolic acid, betulinic acid, carnosic acid, and carnosol. Rosemary essential oil contains 10–20% camphor.

  • The rosemary contains the polyphenols carnosic acid (CA), rosmarinic acid (RA), and carnosol (COH) in high concentrations.[1]

Healing Properties

Antimicrobial

(anti-microbial)

Antibiolm activity

Antiepileptic

anticonvulsant activity against seizures.[2]

Antimutagenic

Antimutagens are agents that protect DNA from harmful mutations.

Anticancer

Pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative

  • Rosemary Extract has potent effects against prostate cancer.[1:1]
    • Treatment of prostate cancer cells with Rosemary Extract resulted in a significant inhibition of proliferation, survival, migration, and tumor cell signaling.
    • Treatment of prostate cancer cells with Rosemary Extract resulted in a significant inhibition of proliferation and survival.
    • Normal prostate epithelial cells remained unaffected by Rosemary Extract treatment.

Antioxidant

Antiparkinson’s

The compound carnosol (from Rosemary) significantly protected brain cells from neurotoxicity and improved the cell viability.

Antidepressant

Involvement of GABAA receptors has been explained as a possible mode of action for inhibition.[2:1]

Anxiolytic

(anti-anxiety)

Carminative

(relieves flatulence)

Circulatory Stimulant

Healthy Digestion

Nervine

used to stimulate/relax the nerves.

Brain Health

Mental Stimulation

Stimulant: Three compounds (cirsimaritin, rosmanol and salvigenin) demonstrated central nervous system stimulant activity.[2:2]

Memory enhancer**

(nootropic)

Neuroprotective

Rosemary leaf extract improves tolerance against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (tissue damage caused when blood supply returns to the brain tissue after a period of ischemia or lack of oxygen).[2:3]

Metabolism

Rosemary Extract improves metabolic abnormalities

Carnosic acid (CA), a major constituent of rosemary extract, has been shown to improve metabolic abnormalities. Three doses decreased body weight gain, decreased changes in lipid profile (due to increased food intake), improved Fasting Blood Glucose levels, leptin level, and mean systolic blood pressure (MSBP). Overall helped regulate glucose hemostasis in the liver.[3]

Skin Health

Disease / Symptom Treatment

Cancer

Prostate Cancer

  • Rosemary Extract has potent effects against prostate cancer.[1:2]
    • Treatment of prostate cancer cells with Rosemary Extract resulted in a significant inhibition of proliferation, survival, migration, and tumor cell signaling.
    • Treatment of prostate cancer cells with Rosemary Extract resulted in a significant inhibition of proliferation and survival while Rosemary Extract had no effect on normal prostate epithelial cells.

Diabetes

Rosemary Extract improves metabolic abnormalities

Carnosic acid (CA), a major constituent of rosemary extract, has been shown to improve metabolic abnormalities. Three doses decreased body weight gain, decreased changes in lipid profile (due to increased food intake), improved Fasting Blood Glucose levels, leptin level, and mean systolic blood pressure (MSBP). Overall helped regulate glucose hemostasis in the liver.[3:1]

Colds/Flu

Fungal Infections

Title: Carnosic acid prevented olanzapine-induced metabolic disorders through AMPK activation
Publication: Springer Nature: Molecular Biology Reports
Date: September 2020
Study Type: Animal Study: In Vivo
Author(s): Bibi Marjan Razavi, Amir Reza Abazari, Maryam Rameshrad & Hossein Hosseinzadeh
Institution(s): Targeted Drug Delivery Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; Department of Pharmacodynamics and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; Department of Pharmacodynamics and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; Department of Pharmacodynamics and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; Pharmaceutical Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
Abstract: Olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic medication, has been associated with weight gain and metabolic toxicity, especially in long term usage. Carnosic acid (CA), a major constituent of rosemary extract, has been shown to improve metabolic abnormalities. In this experiment, the effect of CA on olanzapine-induced obesity and metabolic toxicity has been evaluated. Female Wistar rats were divided into six groups. (1) control; (2) olanzapine (5 mg/kg/day, IP); (3, 4 and 5) olanzapine (5 mg/kg/day, IP) plus CA (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg/day, gavage) and (6) CA (20 mg/kg/day, gavage). Bodyweight and food intake were measured during the study. After 14 days, mean systolic blood pressure (MSBP), glycemia, serum lipid profile, the serum concentration of leptin, insulin, AMPK, P-AMPK, and P-ACC liver protein levels were evaluated. The mean weight in the group received olanzapine increased by 4.8 g at the end of the study. The average food intake was increased by olanzapine. Olanzapine increased triglyceride, fasting blood glucose (FBG), and leptin levels. It increased MSBP and down-regulated P-AMPK/AMPK ratio and P-ACC protein levels. CA (three doses) decreased body weight gain and reduced average food intake at 10 and 20 mg/kg. CA especially at the highest dose decreased the changes in lipid profile, FBG, leptin level, and MSBP. P-AMPK/AMPK and P-ACC protein levels were increased by carnosic acid. In conclusion, the activation of AMPK by CA can be proposed as a key mechanism against olanzapine-induced metabolic toxicity where the activation of AMPK increases fat consumption and regulates glucose hemostasis in the liver.
IPFS Link

Title: Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extract inhibits prostate cancer cell proliferation and survival by targeting Akt and mTOR
Publication: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy
Date: September 2020
Study Type: Human Study: In Vitro
Author(s): Alina Jaglanian, Deborah Termini, Evangelia Tsiani
Institution(s): Department of Health Sciences, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON, L2S 3A1, Canada; Centre for Bone and Muscle Health, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON, L2S 3A1, Canada
Abstract: Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed type of cancer in North American men and is typically classified as either androgen receptor positive or negative depending on the expression of the androgen receptor (AR). AR positive prostate cancer can be treated with hormone therapy while AR negative prostate cancer is aggressive and does not respond to hormone therapy. It has been previously reported that rosemary extract (RE) has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. In the present study, we found that treatment of the androgen-insensitive PC-3 prostate cancer cells with RE resulted in a significant inhibition of proliferation, survival, migration, Akt, and mTOR signaling. In addition, treatment of the androgen-sensitive 22RV1 prostate cancer cells with RE resulted in a significant inhibition of proliferation and survival while RE had no effect on normal prostate epithelial PNT1A cells. These findings suggest that RE has potent effects against prostate cancer and warrants further investigation.
IPFS Link


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  2. Title: Investigation of rosemary herbal extracts (Rosmarinus officinalis) and their potential effects on immunity
    Publication: Wiley Online Research: Phytotherapy Research
    Date: August 2019
    Study Type: Review
    Author(s): Hiwa M. Ahmed, Muhammed Babakir-Mina
    Institution(s): Sulaimani Polytechnic University, Slemani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq; Newcasle Center For Natural Therapy, Ranya, Slemani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq; Community Health Department, Technical College of Health, Sulaimani Polytechnic University, Slemani, Iraq
    Abstract: The discovery of new curative drugs and the consumption of natural dietary ingredients with the ability to exhibit immunomodulatory activity is urgently needed to decrease the risk of chronic diseases among the population. Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae) is an aromatic plant that has been traditionally and medicinally used as a carminative, antispasmodic, painkiller, circulatory tonic, to stimulate hair growth and to improve memory dysfunction. This study aimed to assess the potential effects of rosemary solvent extracts on human immune function. Science Direct, Web of Science, Wiley, Elsevier, PubMed, Scopus, and the Google scholar search engines were used to retrieve relevant information included combinations of “rosemary” or “R. officinalis” with “immune function,” “immunity,” “immune system,” “anti‐inflammatory,” “inflammation,” or “health benefit.” A number of studies have been found a stimulatory effect of rosemary and its active compounds on the immune system in vitro and animal study, but there is a lack of evidence in humans for supporting this. The results demonstrated the potential of rosemary and its main active components as dietary ingredients with immunomodulatory functionality. Human studies should be performed and a double‐blind randomized controlled trial would be ideal.
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